DM 006 Rise and Fall of Caesar

03/14/2013

DM 006 Rise and Fall of Caesar

This Historical Replica Set of coins depicts four historical events in the life and death of Julius Caesar. Each coin is a lead free pewter reproduction of an original Roman silver or gold coin.

Denarius of Caesar the General
The first coin is a reproduction of a Roman Republic denarius of Julius Caesar struck in Italy in 49 B.C. Coins were struck to pay Caesar’s legions. Obverse: Shows an elephant walking right trampling a serpent. CAESAR under elephant. Reverse: Shows a simpulum, sprinkler, axe, and apex (emblems of pontification) which Caesar received from the Senate. (Sear 1399)

Aureus of Caesar the Victor Over Gaul
The second coin is a reproduction of a Roman Republican gold aureus coin of Julius Caesar struck in 48 B.C. in Greece to celebrate Caesar’s conquest of Gaul. Reverse: Shows trophy of Gallic arms, axe on right. Inscription CAESAR under arms. Obverse: Shows a diadem head of Clementia (facing right) wreathed with oak; numeral (52) denotes age of Caesar at time of issue. (Sear 1400)

Denarius of Caesar as Politician and Dictator for Life
The third coin is a single sided electrotype of a Roman Republican denarius of Julius Caesar. With his power undisputed, Caesar orders his portrait to be placed on all silver coins. The original coin was struck in Rome between February and March 44 B.C. Obv: Shows wreathed head of Julius Caesar with the inscription CAESAR DIC PERPETVO (Dictator for Life). (Sear 1409)

Denarius of Caesar’s Assassination
The fourth coin is one of the most celebrated coins of ancient Rome. This denarius celebrates the tyrannicide of Julius Caesar on the Ides (15th) of March, 44 B.C. Brutus and his fellow conspirators killed Caesar to remove Rome of a tyrant and ensure the survival of the Republic. Rev. Shows a pilus (liberty cap) between two daggers with the inscription EID MAR (Ides of March.) Obv. Shows the portrait of Brutus with the inscription BRUE IMP PLAET CEST. The coin was minted in western Asia Minor or Macedonia in the summer/autumn of 42 B.C. (Sear 1439)

All coins conform to the Hobby Act and are marked COPY on the obverse or reverse of the coin.

© 2011 Dunston Mint/dlpStudios


DM 228 The Gladiator 5×7

02/21/2013

For seven centuries Rome celebrated its aggressive martial legacy of the gladiator. The gladiator was an armed fighter who entertained crowds in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. The word ‘gladiator’ comes from the Latin word for swordsman. The gladiator’s sword was called a gladius.

Rome’s gladiatorial games publicly memorialized the art of ‘dying well’ throughout the Republic and Empire. Gladiatorial games were held between gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

This Historical Replica Set shows coins famous Roman Emperors-gladiators and famous places where gladiatorial games were performed.

Roman emperors performed in the gladiatorial arenas with minimum risk. They included Caligula, Claudius, Caligula, Caracalla, and Commodus. Three gold coins of emperor “gladiators” are include in this set. A gold aureus of Caligula, struck in Lugubrious in 37 B.C. (Sear 1813), an aureus of Claudius struck in Lugnumum I 51 A.D. (Sear 1885), and a gold aureus of Commodus struck in Rome in 192 A.D. (Sear 5604).

Two hundred thirty amphitheaters and 60 circuses were built for gladiatorial games during the Roman Republic and Empire. Two Roman coins show pictures of two gladiatorial game venues. First is a sestertius of the great Amphitheater Flavium or Roman Colosseum. Emperor Vespasian began construction in 64 A.D. The Colosseum was inaugurated by Emperor Titus in 80 A.D. as a gift to the Roman people. The building seated 50,000 people. This coin reverse shows the Colosseum with part of interior, gangways, arch, and obelisk. The obverse shows gladiator-emperor Titus seated left on a chair. Struck in Rome in 80 A.D. (Sear 2536). Rome’s Circus Maximus held gladiatorial games, chariot races, and reenactments of naval battles. The sesterius reverse shows the Circus from the Forum Boarium. The obverse shows the emperor-gladiator Caracalla facing right. Struck in Rome in 213 A.D. (Sear 6929).

Each double sided coin in this Set is stamped COPY on the reverse in accordance with the Hobby Protection Act.

© 2011 Dunston Mint/dlpStudios

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Athena Parthenos

02/20/2013

Athena Parthenos

The Parthenon located in Nashville, Tennessee is a full-scale recreation of the ancient Parthenon of Greece.

 

The focal point of Nashville’s Parthenon is a replica of the Athena Parthenos which stood in the ancient Parthenon. The original statue by Pheidias was dedicated between 438 and 437 B.C.

 

Nashville sculptor Alan LeQuire and the Parthenon staff conducted extensive research on the accuracy of Nashville’s Athena. In The Description of Greece, the ancient geographer Pausanias describes Athena Parthenos: “The statue itself is made of ivory, silver, and gold. On the middle of her helmet is placed a likeness of the Sphinx. . . and on either side of the helmet are griffins in relief. The statue of Athena is upright with a tunic reaching to the feet, and on her breast the head of Medusa is worked in ivory. She holds a statue of Victory about four cubits high, and in the other hand a spear. At her feet lies a shield and near the spear is a serpent. On the pedestal is the birth of Pandora in relief.” Research included representations of Athena on contemporary Greek reliefs, and coins. The Hellenist coins portray Athena on the reverse of its coins.

 

This historical set includes two of these Greek coins. The top coin obverse displays a replica of a silver tetradrachm of Lysmachos (323 to 283 B.C.). The coin reverse shows helmetedAthena enthroned left holding Nike and resting left with arm on shield, transverse spear resting against her right side. (Sear 6813) The bottom coin shows a tetradrachm of Ptolomy 1 (302 to 283 B.C.). The coin reverse shows

Athena advancing right brandishing a spear and shield. A small eagle on a thunder bolt is on right. (Sear 7747)

 

In 1990, the 41′ 10” LeQuire’s statue of Athena was completed and installed in the east room of Nashville’s Parthenon. The statue of Nike inAthena’s right hand is 6’ 4” inches. Eleven snakes appear onAthena’s breastplate, bracelets, and belt. Athena is painted and is covered with 8 ½ pounds of gold leaf.

 

This historical set also includes a resin reproduction of an ancient Greek spear head as shown in Athena Parthenos and on Greek coins.

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Made exclusively for the Parthenon, Nashville, Tennessee, by the Dunston Mint and dlpStudios.


DM 337 Victorian Age in England

02/19/2013

The Victorian Age of England

Queen Victoria ruled Great Britain from June 20, 1837 to January 22, 1901. Victoria brought a 64 year period of “peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self confidence for Britain.” This period is called the Victorian Age of Britain.

Culturally, the Victorian Age marked the transition away from eighteenth century rationalism of the Georgian Age. The nineteenth century moved from romanticism toward realism in social values and the arts. The era is popularly associated with the Victorian values of social and sexual restraint.

During Victoria¹s reign, the British Empire entered a period of rapid economic expansion. This expansion, combined with increasing industrialization and mechanization, established a prolonged period of international growth.

The  English population doubled during Queen Victoria¹s reign. Only Ireland¹s population decreased due to the Irish Potato Famine of 1845. The Irish emigrated from England to the United States, Canada, and Australia. The Victorian age brought great political change and industrial reform. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities and political concerns to the passage of the Reform Act of 1832 launching modern universal suffrage and democracy in Britain. Poor labor conditions established new child labor laws and rise of organized labor. In international relations, the Victorian Age brought a long period of peace as well as economic, colonial, and industrial consolidation. Two important figures in this period of British history are the prime ministers Gladstone and Disraeli.

The works of Dickens, the Bronte sisters, Elliot, and Hardy brought a new realism to English literature that influenced political and social change in England.

This historical set includes three lead-free pewter replica medals of Queen Victoria. These portraits depict lifetime representation of the Queen and appear on the coins during her 64 year reign.

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DM 332 Classical Zoo-Greece

02/18/2013

The Classical Zoo – Greece

The Greek historian Herodotus tells us the Lydians invented coins. Coins replaced ingots and bars because coins were easier for transport and trade. Initially, the Greeks imprinted familial coats of arms on their coins. As rulers of city-states took control of minting, symbols of animals were used on coins of the city-states. Often animal designs were determined by a particular deity for which the city-state had an affinity. For example, the front (obverse) of the coin display the head of Athena, the patron goddess of Athens. The back (reverse) of the coin shows the owl, associated with her worship. Animals were also used to identify the coins of specific regions of ancient Greece. This Historical Collection includes five lead free pewter reproductions of ancient Greek coins showing a variety of animals. These include:

Tetradrachm of Ainos
Ainos was a prosperous city and trading center on a Thracian peninsula at the mouth of the Hebros River. The original coin was made between 474 and 440 B.C. Obverse: shows a goat walking right. Reverse: shows the head of youthful Hermes. (Sear 1562).

Didrachm of Larissa
Larissa was the most important town in Thessaly. The original coin was struck between 350 and 325 B.C. Reverse: a horse trotting right. Obverse: displays the nymph Larissa three quarters facing right. (Sear 2119).

Tetradrachm of Athens
By the fourth century B.C. Athens became the center of the Aegean world and a great cultural and political center. The original silver tetradrachm was made between 440 and 413 B.C. Reverse: shows a standing owl facing right with olive twigs. The owl is the symbol of Athena and the city of Athens. Obverse: shows the head of Athena facing right. (Sear 2526).

Hemidrachm of Olympia
Olympia was the famous center of the ancient Greek Olympian games. The original silver coin was made between 271 and 191 B.C. Reverse: shows an eagle seated right on an Ionic capital. The eagle was the symbol of Zeus and the city of Olympia. Obverse: displays Zeus facing right. (Sear 2900).

Drachm of Aigina
Located between Athens and the eastern Peloponnese, the island of Aigina was the earliest island trade center to make and use coins for their maritime trade. Before the rise of political rise of Athens, Aigina was the greatest Mediterranean trade center in the Greek world. The tortoise was the symbol of Aigina. This replica of a silver drachm was minted between 404 and 340 BC. Obverse: shows a tortoise with a segmented shell. Reverse: shows incise square. (Sear 2606).

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DM 332 Classical Zoo-Italy & Syracuse

02/17/2013

The Classical Zoo – Greek Colonies

The Greek colonies in southern Italy and Sicily began using coins for trade in the middle of the 6th century B.C. When rulers of colonial city-states took control of minting, symbols of animals appeared on their coins. For example, the southern Italy colony of Sybaris minted coins decorated with an owl on the back (reverse). Animals were
also used to identify the coins of specific regions of ancient Greece. This Historical Collection includes two ancient animal coins of Greek colonies in southern Italy. These include:

Sybaris Stater
Sybaris was founded in 720 B.C. It was the most richest and most important Greek colony in Italy until its destruction in 510 B.C. This stater was made between 530 and 510 B.C. The obverse (front) shows a bull standing left looking right. The reverse (back), shows a mirror image of the front except the bull is standing right and looking left.(Sear 245)

 Didrachm of Taras
Between 272-235 B.C. Taras was the most important Greek city-state in southern Italy. Reverse of the coin shows Taras seated on a dolphin facing left. The obverse shows a naked boy seated on a horse facing left. (Sear 374)

During the 5th century, Sicilian coinage reached “the heights of artistic brilliance unsurpassed by any other series in Greek numismatics.” ( David Sear, Greek Coins and heir Values, vol.1.) This Collection includes three animal coins of ancient Sicily:

Tetradrachm of Myron
The city of Akragas was a Sicilian city of great wealth and importance. This is an excellent example of the Greek engraving art of Myron. The reverse of the coin shows two eagles with wings spread standing over a rabbit. The obverse shows a chariot drawn by four horses driven by young male. Struck between 413 and 406 B.C. (Sear 750)

Tetradrachm of Akragas
This replica tetradrachm was struck between 430 to 413 B.C. The reverse shows a crab with a large fish below. The obverse shows an eagle with spread wings over a rabbit lying on a rock with corn grain and scallop shell. (Sear 747)

Tetradrachm of Massara
Massara was a Greek city-state founded in southern Italy. This coin was struck between 425-396 B.C. The tetradrachm reverse shows a hare bounding left with seahorse below facing right. The obverse shows a biga driven by city-state goddess of Massara crowned by Nike above. (Sear 853)

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DM 340 Alexander the Great in India

02/15/2013

Alexander the Great in India

After conquering Persia in 230 B.C., Alexander the Great marched east through central Asia. By the fall of 227 B.C. Alexander captured modern day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and a large part of Pakistan.

In August of 227 B.C. Alexander moved his military campaign into the ancient gateway ot he Indian subcontinent – the Punjab.

In June of 326 BC, Indian King Poros, fought Alexander in the Battle of the Hydaspes River. Poros deployed horse cavalry on his flanks with infantry and 300 elephants in his center. Alexander attacked Poros’ left flank with horse archers. Poros’ remaining cavalry attempted to relieve their kinsmen, but were attacked from the rear by Alexanders cavalry. The Macedonian phalanx attacked the Indian center of infantry and elephants. Alexander’s army and cavalry encircled the Indian army and Poros surrendered.

This fierce battle resulted ia a complete Macedonia victory. 23,000 Indian soldiers and 1000 Macedonians perished.

Impressed by Poros’ stature and willingness to fight to the death, Alexander permitted Poros to rule the Punjab and become Alexander’s ally.

To commemorate his Indian victory, Alexander produced a large silver deckadram. Obverse: On the right side, Alexander on horseback thrusting a spear at a mahout (elephant driver) and his master seated on an Indian elephant. The mahout and master look back towards Alexander, the master grasps the end of Alexander’s spear with his right hand, the mahout brandishes a spear in his right hand above his head while holding two further spears in his left hands. Reverse: Alexander standing to left, wearing military attire and sword holding a thunderbolt in his right hand and a spear in his left, Nike flies above to right to crown him. (Sear 6216)

Only 14 of these large coins survive. Examples are in museums and private collections This historical set includes a lead free pewter replica of this rare silver medallion.

htto://www.warrenscoins.com

The Battle of the Hydaspes River represents the Alexander’s annexation of the Punjab. The Battle of is historically significant for opening up India for Greek political and cultural influence for many centuries.

By July 326 B C Alexander’s army mutinies and refuses to go further. Alexander sent most of his army back to Carmania (Iran). In December 325 BC Alexander returns to Carmania. He spends his last years in Persia. Alexander the Great dies in Babylon in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II in July 323 B.C.