DM 330 California Gold

02/14/2013

Gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California on January 24, 1848. The Gold Rush of 1848 – 1855 is the major factor in the growth and development of modern California. By 1855 over 300,000 people came to California to search for gold. By 1850 California wa a state. San Francisco grew from 200 people in 1846 to 36,000.

The early gold miners, called “forty-niners” found gold on the ground and by panning for gold in California’s river streams. By 1853, industrious groups of prospectors began diverting water from the rivers into sluices to process large amounts of river bed gravel with gold settling to the bottom of the sluice. (The front cover illustrates the use of the sluice process in recovering gold). In the first five years of the Gold Rush over $ 16 billion (12 million ounces) of gold was extracted using panning and sluices. By 1885, large industrial operations extracted an additional $15 billion in California gold using hydraulic mining.

This California Gold historical set includes six replicas of California gold pieces. Early gold pieces were minted by private companies and the US Assay Office. A wide variety of denominations were produced for trade and commerce.

1. San Francisco Cal. $50 Octagonal Gold pieces were manufactured in 1851 and 1852. This wasthe largest denomination of private minted coins. The obverse shows a spread eagle resting upon shields. The reverse shows ’50’ in center with jeweler markings circling the number.

2. An $18 one oz. rectangular gold ingot made by Meyers and Company. The small rectangle ismarked on the obverse with a hole on one side. The reverse is blank.

3. San Francisco Cal. $20 gold coin of 1854 made by Kellogg and Company. The obverse shows Liberty facing left with the coin circled by stars. The reverse shows an eagle with head turned left holding a banner in its claws.

4. Baldwin & Company, a California assayer in 1850 struck a $10 gold coin. The obverse shows rider on horseback facing right; San Francisco Gold and Ten Dollars around the rim. The reverse shows an American eagle with Baldwin & C0.and San Francisco around the rim.

5. An 1852 Indian head gold $1 piece. The obverse shows an Indian head facing left. The reverse shows a wreath marked California Gold.

6. San Francisco Cal. $20 gold coin of 1849 made by Cincinnati Mining and Trading Company. The obverse shows an Indian with head dress facing left. The reverse shows an eagle facing left..

http://www.warrenscoins.com

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Million dollar ancient silver shekel highlights world’s greatest private Jewish coin collection

03/02/2012

Million dollar ancient silver shekel highlights world’s greatest private Jewish coin collection.


Treasure hunter Greg Brooks of Sub Sea Research says he found $3B World War II wreck

02/21/2012

Treasure hunter Greg Brooks of Sub Sea Research says he found $3B World War II wreck.


DM 304 The Roman Colosseum

02/11/2012

DM 303 The Roman Spear Set by Dunston Mint

02/11/2012

Excavation of Tomb of Jesus by Byzantine Empress Henena in A.D.428 and discovery of holy relics including Roman spear that pierced side of Jesus

Roman Spear

 The Roman thrusting spear or hasta was carried in battle from the ninth century B.C. to the fall of the Western Empire in A.D. 476. This Roman spear was a 6 ½ foot ash pole topped with a 6 inch iron spearhead. For 1200 years the Roman army integrated the Roman spear throughout its formations.

Foundations of the Roman Army (800 B.C. – 315 B.C.) Early Roman warriors used thrusting spears in intra-tribal battles. By 315 B.C. an early Roman infantry overthrew the Etruscan occupation using Greek hoplite tactics carrying spears and shields.

Army of the Roman Republic 315 B.C. – 31 B.C.) With the territorial victories of the Second Punic War, Rome began developing a professional Roman Army. Roman citizens were organized into discliplined mobile units called legions. Each soldier carried a shield, short sword, and two throwing javelins, or pila. The pilum was a heavy offensive weapon featuring a long thin iron shank (neck) and heavy shaft. Around 200 B.C. Roman allied troops were organized to support the legions. The auxilia were comprised of non-Roman citizens used as light infantry, skirmishers, and light calvary support. Auxiliary units were lightly armed with shields and thrusting spears or hasta.

The Imperial Roman Army 31 B.C. – A.D. 284) While Roman legions were invading and capturing new territories, the non citizen auxilia or auxiliary troops were used to occupy conquered Roman provinces such as Judea. In A.D. 212, citizenship was granted to all free-born inhabitants of the Empire. Over time the distinction between the professional Army’s legionary and auxiliary forces declined and disappeared. The Roman Army became a defense force charged with maintaining the Empire’s vast borders in fixed garrisons. The army underwent changes in response to these new needs. In the Roman Empire the auxilariary forces grew to comprise more than 60% of all Roman formations.

Late Roman Army (A.D. 284 – A.D. 476) In the third and fourth centuries, Rome struggled to maintain its vast territories with its salaried and professional army. More allied and mercenary troops were recruited to meet military requirements. Mercenary troops grew to represent the major part of the Empire’s armed forces. Uniformity of structure found in Rome’s earlier military disappeared. Late Roman Empire troops were lightly armed mounted archers and infantry, in units of varying size and quality. The Roman spear or hasta was a primary weapon of light cavalry and infantry units.

The Spear of Longinus. According to New Testament accounts, a Roman soldier pierced the side of Jesus with a spear. Tradition names him Longinus. The spear was most likely a Roman hasta. In the early Church, this spear became a religious relic. By the fourth century, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine the Great gave his mother, Helena, unlimited funds to locate relics of the early Christian Church. From A.D. 426 to 428, Helena traveled to the holy places in Judea. In Jerusalem, Helena oversaw the excavation of a Roman temple built over the Tomb of Jesus. According to tradition, holy relics found included the true cross, the nails of Christ’s crucifixion, and the Spear of Longinus.

ON THE COVER: The resin reproduction of the Roman spearhead, is on a representation of the discovery of the Spear of Longinus.

Israeli lifeguard Avi Afia rescues sunken treasure from the Mediterranean sea near Tel Aviv

09/16/2011

Israeli lifeguard Avi Afia rescues sunken treasure from the Mediterranean sea near Tel Aviv

Israeli lifeguard Avi Afia rescues sunken treasure from the Mediterranean sea near Tel Aviv


An
ancient anchor is displayed in Caesarea, Israel, Wednesday, Sept. 14,
2011. Israeli lifeguards plunged into the Mediterranean sea this month
on an unusual rescue mission: to pull out an ancient ship’s anchor, a
nearly 7-foot, 660-pound iron anchor, probably a spare in the belly of a
Byzantine ship that crashed and sank in a storm near the shore about
1,700 years ago, said archeologist Jacob Sharvit of Israel’s Antiquities
Authority. AP Photo/Ariel Schalit.

By: Daniel Estrin, Associated Press



JERUSALEM (AP).- Israeli lifeguards plunged into the
Mediterranean sea this month on an unusual rescue mission: to pull out
an ancient ship’s anchor.

Lifeguard Avi Afia first spotted the tip of the anchor on a daily
swim five years ago. It was peeking out from the sandy ocean floor about
150 feet (60 meters) from the coast.

It wasn’t until this month that the sands shifted to reveal the
treasure in its entirety: a nearly 7-foot (2.1 meter), 650-pound (300
kilogram) iron anchor, probably a spare in the belly of a Byzantine ship
that crashed and sank in a storm about 1,700 years ago, said
archaeologist Jacob Sharvit of Israel’s Antiquities Authority.

“It’s a feast for the eyes,” said Afia, whose colleagues walked out
to the spot, in water about six feet (two meters) deep and dragged it
into the lifeguard shack in Bat Yam, near Tel Aviv.

The anchor dates back to the 4th or 5th century, estimated Sharvit,
who heads the marine archaeology branch of Israel’s Antiquities
Authority.

He said it attests to the vibrant sea trade of the Byzantine era,
when merchant ships would carry oil, wine and stones for construction to
ports along the coast and across the Mediterranean. The anchor also may
point to a previously unknown ancient harbor on the coast, he added.

He said his team of archaeologists would go diving this week to
search for the rest of the shipwrecked treasure. He expects to find
ancient wine and oil jugs, coins, the seafarers’ personal items — and
more anchors.

Shipwrecked finds, while not rare, are especially valuable for
archaeologists, Shavit said. Ancient ships often carried brand-new items
on their way to be sold in markets. That means researchers can examine
those items in their original condition, before they were used.

The collection of items found on the ocean floor also tells a
complete story of the seafaring routes and technological advances of
that moment in history.

“It’s like a time capsule,” Sharvit said. “Every find, especially in the sea, tells a story of disaster.”

The region’s 5,000 years of seafaring have seen numerous tragedies.
Every few days, Sharvit’s divers discover remnants of sunken ships on
the ocean floor. So far they’ve found 500 groups of shipwrecked items
along Israel’s coast, though he said the anchor is among the most
impressive finds.

A particularly strong storm at the end of 2010 moved large amounts
of sand, unearthing ancient objects close to the coast. A passer-by on
the beach in Ashkelon, south of Tel Aviv, found a 4-foot (1.3-meter)
tall white marble Roman statue of a woman in a toga and sandals on a
cliff that had crumbled under the weight of strong winds and high waves.

The rise in discoveries also led to an increase in looting, Sharvit
said. They include scuba divers who go looking for treasure to sell on
the black market, as well as fishermen who discover antiquities in their
nets and take them home along with the fish.

Looters caught face a possible three-year prison sentence, according to Sharvit.

But the “Indiana Jones” lifeguards are being given a hero’s welcome.

“We knew it was there for years,” Afia said. “We’re happy and proud to give it as a gift.”

Copyright 2011 The Associated Press.

ship’s anchor |
Mediterranean se |


Israeli lifeguard Avi Afia rescues sunken treasure from the Mediterranean sea near Tel Aviv

09/16/2011

Israeli lifeguard Avi Afia rescues sunken treasure from the Mediterranean sea near Tel Aviv

Israeli lifeguard Avi Afia rescues sunken treasure from the Mediterranean sea near Tel Aviv


An ancient anchor is displayed in Caesarea, Israel, Wednesday, Sept. 14, 2011. Israeli lifeguards plunged into the Mediterranean sea this month on an unusual rescue mission: to pull out an ancient ship’s anchor, a nearly 7-foot, 660-pound iron anchor, probably a spare in the belly of a Byzantine ship that crashed and sank in a storm near the shore about 1,700 years ago, said archeologist Jacob Sharvit of Israel’s Antiquities Authority. AP Photo/Ariel Schalit.

By: Daniel Estrin, Associated Press

JERUSALEM (AP).- Israeli lifeguards plunged into the Mediterranean sea this month on an unusual rescue mission: to pull out an ancient ship’s anchor.

Lifeguard Avi Afia first spotted the tip of the anchor on a daily swim five years ago. It was peeking out from the sandy ocean floor about 150 feet (60 meters) from the coast.

It wasn’t until this month that the sands shifted to reveal the treasure in its entirety: a nearly 7-foot (2.1 meter), 650-pound (300 kilogram) iron anchor, probably a spare in the belly of a Byzantine ship that crashed and sank in a storm about 1,700 years ago, said archaeologist Jacob Sharvit of Israel’s Antiquities Authority.

“It’s a feast for the eyes,” said Afia, whose colleagues walked out to the spot, in water about six feet (two meters) deep and dragged it into the lifeguard shack in Bat Yam, near Tel Aviv.

The anchor dates back to the 4th or 5th century, estimated Sharvit, who heads the marine archaeology branch of Israel’s Antiquities Authority.

He said it attests to the vibrant sea trade of the Byzantine era, when merchant ships would carry oil, wine and stones for construction to ports along the coast and across the Mediterranean. The anchor also may point to a previously unknown ancient harbor on the coast, he added.

He said his team of archaeologists would go diving this week to search for the rest of the shipwrecked treasure. He expects to find ancient wine and oil jugs, coins, the seafarers’ personal items — and more anchors.

Shipwrecked finds, while not rare, are especially valuable for archaeologists, Shavit said. Ancient ships often carried brand-new items on their way to be sold in markets. That means researchers can examine those items in their original condition, before they were used.

The collection of items found on the ocean floor also tells a complete story of the seafaring routes and technological advances of that moment in history.

“It’s like a time capsule,” Sharvit said. “Every find, especially in the sea, tells a story of disaster.”

The region’s 5,000 years of seafaring have seen numerous tragedies. Every few days, Sharvit’s divers discover remnants of sunken ships on the ocean floor. So far they’ve found 500 groups of shipwrecked items along Israel’s coast, though he said the anchor is among the most impressive finds.

A particularly strong storm at the end of 2010 moved large amounts of sand, unearthing ancient objects close to the coast. A passer-by on the beach in Ashkelon, south of Tel Aviv, found a 4-foot (1.3-meter) tall white marble Roman statue of a woman in a toga and sandals on a cliff that had crumbled under the weight of strong winds and high waves.

The rise in discoveries also led to an increase in looting, Sharvit said. They include scuba divers who go looking for treasure to sell on the black market, as well as fishermen who discover antiquities in their nets and take them home along with the fish.

Looters caught face a possible three-year prison sentence, according to Sharvit.

But the “Indiana Jones” lifeguards are being given a hero’s welcome.

“We knew it was there for years,” Afia said. “We’re happy and proud to give it as a gift.”

Copyright 2011 The Associated Press.

ship’s anchor | Mediterranean se |